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Pushkin
Pushkin is the most important Russian writer of all time, like Shakespeare in England or Dante in Italy. Pushkin provided the standards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century. Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799 into an upper-class family. In 1811 he entered a lyceum at Tsarskoye Solo. The education offered at the lyceum shaped Pushkin’s life. He graduated from the lyceum in 1817 and began to work in the foreign office in St. Petersburg. In 1820 the foreign office transferred Pushkin to Ekaterinoslav, and later to Odessa for writing anti-tsarist poetry. In 1824, for his letters against the tsar, he was exiled to Mikhailovskoye. In 1824, Tsar Nicholas I allowed Pushkin to return to Moscow. Pushkin felt in love with Natalya Goncharova, and in 1830 they got married. His wife was suspected of an affair with Baron Georges d’Antes; this became the subject of gossip. Pushkin challenged d’Antes to a duel. Pushkin was wounded and died two days later. Pushkin was Russia’s greatest poet. In his works he was first influenced by 18th century poets, and then by Lord Byron. Finally he developed his own style, which was realistic but classical in form. His earliest long poem was romantic “Ruslan and Lyudmila” (1818-1820) . А series of verse tales followed- “The Prisoner of the Caucasus” , “The Robber Brothers” , “The Fountain of Bakhchisarai” , and “The Gypsies” . They were inspired by Syren’s poetry. In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece “Eugene Onegin” , a novel in verse. “Eugen Onegin” became the linguistic and literary standard. It is a commentary on the life of the early I 9th century Russia. It is noted for brilliant verse. He also wrote other long poems, including “Bronze Horseman” (1833) , the finest collection of lyrics in Russian literature. Pushkin created also a number of masterpieces in drama and prose. “Little Tragedies” and “The Stone Guest” are among the best works in the world history of drama. Pushkin’s love to Russia’s past resulted in his historical drama, “Boris Godunov” (1825) . “Tales of the Late l. P. Belkin” , “Dubrovsky” , “The Captain’s Daughter” are the most important of his prose works. Pushkin’s use of Russian influenced the of great Russian writers Turgenev, Goncharov, Tolstoy. Pushkin’s early death shocked the country. Pushkin, called by many “the sun of Russian literature” , belongs among the foremost poets and writers of the world.

Russia
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territory of Russia lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are: the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others. Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the south-east, Finland and Norway in the north-west, and so on. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest on earth. The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others. The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people. The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts.
The capital of Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. Russia is a presidential republic. It is one of the leading powers in the world.

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